The Flags of Civil War North Carolina
In April 1861, the first flag of a new republic flew over North Carolina. The state had just seceded from the union, and its citizens would soon have to fight for their homes, their families, and their way of life

North Carolina Civil War Map of Battles


North Carolina Civil War Battle Map
Civil War North Carolina
The Civil War in North Carolina
From and through North Carolina, men and supplies went to Lee's army in Virginia, making the Tar Heel state critical to Lee's ability to remain in the field during the closing months of the war

August 28-29, 1861 Hatteras Inlet Batteries / Fort Clark / Fort Hatteras
February 7-8, 1862 Roanoke Island / Fort Huger
March 14, 1862 New Berne
March 23-April 26, 1862 Fort Macon
April 19, 1862 South Mills / Camden
June 5, 1862 Tranter's Creek
December 14, 1862 Kinston
December 16, 1862 White Hall / Whitehall / White Hall Ferry
December 17, 1862 Goldsborough Bridge
March 13-15, 1863 Fort Anderson / Deep Gully
March 30-April 20, 1863 Washington
April 17-20, 1864 Plymouth
May 5, 1864 Albemarle Sound
December 7-27, 1864 Fort Fisher
January 13-15, 1865 Fort Fisher
February 12-22, 1865 Wilmington / Forks Road / Sugar Loaf Hill
March 7-10, 1865 Wyse Fork / Wilcox's Bridge / Second Southwest Creek
March 10, 1865 Monroe's Cross Roads / Fayetteville Road / Blue's Farm
March 16, 1865 Averasborough / Smiths Ferry / Black River
March 19-21, 1865 Bentonville / Bentonsville

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Confederate Appalachia
The Heart of Confederate Appalachia: Western North

In the mountains of western North Carolina, the Civil War was fought on different terms than those found throughout most of the South. Though relatively minor strategically, incursions by both Confederate and Union troops disrupted life and threatened the social stability of many communities. Even more disruptive were the internal divisions among western Carolinians themselves.

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Duke Blue Devils Basketball Sweatshirt
Duke Blue Devils Sweatshirt

Duke Blue Devils Flag
Duke Blue Devils Flag



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Watermans Song Slavery and Freedom

The Waterman's Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina
Chronicles the world of slave and free black fishermen, pilots, rivermen, sailors, ferrymen, and other laborers who, from the colonial era through Reconstruction, plied the vast inland waters of North Carolina from the Outer Banks to the upper reaches of tidewater rivers


The 2nd North Carolina Cavalry
The Second North Carolina Cavalry involvement with the Army of Northern Virginia and the North Carolina Cavalry Brigade, and includes official documents, letters written to and from home, diaries and memoirs to present the soldiers' war experiences
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Appalachia

The Heart of Confederate Appalachia: Western North Carolina in the Civil War
Differing ideologies turned into opposing loyalties, and the resulting strife proved as traumatic as anything imposed by outside armies. As the mountains became hiding places for deserters, draft dodgers, fugitive slaves, and escaped prisoners of war, the conflict became a more localized and internalized guerrilla war

Two Great Rebel Armies: An Essay in Confederate Military History
The Army of Northern Virginia was able to compile a large number of impressive victories during the war. The Army of Tennessee was only able to win at Chickamauga, and even that victory proved barren strategically.

55th North Carolina in the Civil War: A History And Roster
The 55th Regiment North Carolina Troops was composed primarily of farmers and tradesmen, the regiment also presented a microcosm of the Tar Heel State with a regionally diverse membership from more than 20 counties

The 4th North Carolina Cavalry in the Civil War: A History and Roster
With the Civil War was entering its second year North Carolina was rallying to supply more troops. The Partisan Ranger Act prompted local leaders to recruit companies of irregular soldiers for service in the Confederate Army. Seven such companies were banded together into a regiment to form the 4th North Carolina Cavalry.
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Six Years of Hell
Harpers Ferry During the Civil War

While Harpers Ferry was an important location during the Civil War, in most Civil War books it's a sideshow of something larger. John Brown's raid, Lee's invasions of 1862 & 1863 as well as Early's 1864 raid are all covered in depth

Lee's Tar Heels: The Pettigrew-Kirkland-MacRae Brigade
The most successful of North Carolina's units during the Civil War. The brigade played a central role in Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg and also fought with distinction during the Petersburg campaign and in later battles including the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor
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Chancellorsville Aftermath

Chancellorsville
The Battle and Its Aftermath

Chancellorsville was a remarkable victory for Robert E. Lee's troops, a fact that had enormous psychological importance for both sides, which had met recently at Fredericksburg and would meet again at Gettysburg in just two months. But the achievement, while stunning, came at an enormous cost: more than 13,000 Confederates became casualties, including Stonewall Jackson

Ironclads and Big Guns of the Confederacy : The Journal and Letters of John M. Brooke
Information about the Confederate Navy's effort to supply its fledgling forces, the wartime diaries and letters of John M. Brooke tell the neglected story of the Confederate naval ordnance office, its innovations, and its strategic vision.
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Wade Hampton

Wade Hampton: Confederate Warrior to Southern Redeemer
General Wade Hampton was for a time the commander of all Lee's cavalry and at the end of the war was the highest-ranking Confederate cavalry officer
Struggle for the heartland
Struggle for the Heartland: The Campaigns from Fort Henry to Corinth
The military campaign that began in early 1862 with the advance to Fort Henry and culminated in late May with the capture of Corinth, Mississippi. The first significant Northern penetration into the Confederate west
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John Hunt Morgan Raiders

John Hunt Morgan and His Raiders
The "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy" John Hunt Morgan from Tompkinsville, Kentucky to Greeneville, Tennessee.

A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army 1861-1865
Almost 200,000 African-American soldiers fought for the Union in the Civil War. Although most were illiterate ex-slaves, several thousand were well educated, free black men from the northern states

Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign
The war probably could have been over in 1862 had Lieutenant Phelps destroyed the bridge at Florence. Not doing so provided a retreat for A. S. Johnston to move his men to Corinth and then to Shiloh

Lee's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865
The cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia its leadership, the military life of its officers and men as revealed in their diaries and letters, the development of its tactics as the war evolved, and the influence of government policies on its operational abilities. All the major players and battles are involved

War in Kentucky: From Shiloh to Perryville
Union gains in the Mississippi Valley and in Tennessee and Kentucky had brought the Confederacy to a point of crisis. This addition to the literature on the Civil War in the West tells how the Union then failed to press home its advantage while the Confederacy failed to force Kentucky into the Confederacy

On May 20, 1861, a state convention meeting in Raleigh dissolved North Carolina’s association with the United States. That same day the convention established a committee to investigate the design for an official state flag with Colonel John D. Whitford as chairman. On June 22, 1861, the following ordinance was ratified by members of the convention:

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority of the same, That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the centre, and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 1775," and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width.

This pattern flag with the May 20, 1775 date of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence and the May 20, 1861 date of secession would serve as the official North Carolina flag until the adoption of the current state flag in 1885. Shortly after June 22 locally produced examples, along with stylized variations of the official flag, appeared at both the company and regimental level


Courtesy Museum of the Confederacy
Battle flag of the 28th North Carolina Infantry

Confederate regiments usually carried one flag of a particular design depending upon the army they served in. The Army of Northern Virginia battleflag was made of heavy cotton or wool in the shape of a red square with a St. Andrews cross of blue stripes and 13 white stars. The field was usually outlined in white cotton. The flags were marked with the number and state initials of the regiment. Some regiments even went so far as to put the names of battles in which they participated in on their flags, which they called battle honors . More battle honors on the flag meant more prestige for the regiment. Very few of Lee's regiments carried flags from their home state or flags of another design. This standard flag helped indetify friend from foe in the thick of battle. Confederate armies in the west and deep south had flags with different designs. A common Confederate battle flag seen in the western army was made of blue wool with a white sphere in the center.

This flag is a true veteran of the Battle of Gettysburg. It was captured by Union troops on July 3 during "Pickett's Charge". Today it resides in the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia.

The state flag was adopted by the Legislature of 1885 to replace the state's first flag, which had been adopted in 1861. Buy this North Carolina State Flag
North Carolina State Map
North Carolina State Flag
47th North Carolina
47th North Carolina
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North Carolina
Confederate Military History Of North Carolina: North Carolina In The Civil War, 1861-1865
At the Battle of Big Bethel, North Carolina experienced the first Confederate casualty of the War. Field officers and privates discuss their unit's skirmishes and battles. Included are diaries and memoirs from unit historians; underscoring the veracity of their fighting history

Bonnie Blue Flag
Bonnie Blue Flag
Bonnie Blue
The Confederate government did not adopt this flag but the people did and the lone star flags were adopted in some form in five of the southern States that adopted new flags in 1861.
Southern Cross Flag
Rebel Southern Cross
Used as a navy jack at sea from 1863 onward. This flag has become the generally recognized symbol of the South.
Second Confederate Flag
second confederate flag
On May 1st,1863, a second design was adopted, placing the Battle Flag (also known as the "Southern Cross") as the canton on a white field. This flag was easily mistaken for a white flag of surrender especially when the air was calm and the flag hung limply.
More on Confederate Flags



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Sources:
U.S. National Park Service
U.S. Library of Congress.
Gettysburg National Military Park


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