Army of the Cumberland and George Thomas Source -
A photographic essay and plea to restore
General George H. Thomas to his rightful place in our nation's
by Bob Redman, copyright © 11 Aug.
Birthplace of Gen. George H.
Thomaston is about 2 miles east of Newsoms,
VA and near the N.C.
border in the Virginia tidewater region.
I-95 at Emporia, VA, take US-58 east 23 miles, turn south on VA-35, then
left on Grays Shop Rd. into Newsoms. From
there, head east toward Franklin on
General Thomas Hwy. (Hwy. 671) for 2 miles. Turn left onto Cypress Bridge
Rd. (Hwy. 674), then turn left immediately onto Thomaston Rd. Thomaston is
a white private home at 2837 Chickamauga Dr. and is indicated by an
From Franklin take
VA-671 west (Gen. Thomas Hwy.) for 9 miles, turn right onto Cypress Bridge
Rd. (Hwy. 674), then take first left on Hwy. 709 to Chickamauga
To make an appointment to visit
Thomaston contact John Skeeters at
Rawls Public Library in Courtland, VA
(757-653-2821, email@example.com) has a collection of articles
written locally about Thomas. Contact Shelley Huntington.
Front view of Thomaston.
The original part where Thomas was born, is behind.
Front view showing 300 year old oak
tree on left. An acorn was the symbol
Thomas chose for his favored XIV Corps.
Back view of house. When Thomas was born the
house only had 3 rooms (the part surrounded by the blue line). The other
parts were added later.
The monument in the Thomas family graveyard next to
The 4th side is blank and therefore not
shown here. The other 3 sides show the names of the Thomas parents (John
and Elizabeth, né Rochelle), and 7 of the 9 children. George is buried in
Troy, NY, and Benjamin is buried in Vicksburg where he lived before and
after the war. According to Wilbur Thomas (General George H.
Thomas, pg. 48), "John William was the eldest child; Judith Elvira,
the second; Benjamin, the third; and George Henry, the subject of this
work, the fourth. Unfortunately, the remaining children cannot be placed
in their order of birth." His source were the
Mattie R. Tyler Papers in the Southampton County Courthouse.
However, since the children on the one side of the monument are arranged
in order of birth, it is reasonable to assume that the stonemason had
received instructions. The complete order would thus be as
1. John William
Elvira (died 1903)
3. Benjamin (1814-1876), buried in Vicksburg,
4. George Henry (born 31 July 1816, died in San Francisco 28
March 1870 , buried in Troy, NY)
6. Francis G. (Fanny, died
7. Lucy Briggs (né Thomas)
Plaque located in front of
Plaque on Highway 58 between Courtland
The Rochelle house in
Courtland, home of Thomas' mother
Interior view of the Rochelle house
with well-kept period furnishings
View of the Courtland County courthouse
The courthouse as it looked when Thomas
read law there, from a painting in the Rochelle house. Nat
Turner was tried here.
The Southampton County
Historical Society maintains a display in the
courthouse. In the case are books and publications about the county. The
portrait is of Colgate Darden, Jr. (governor of
Virginia 1942-46), who was a champion of Thomas.
Display case in courthouse with
by Bob Redman, 11 Aug.
According to Earasmus Darwin Keyes,
Thomas' superior at Ft. Lauderdale in 1832: "There is a moral
in the life and services of Thomas. He was strictly conscientious, he loved
Virginia, and his affections for the South were strong. He was warm also to the
According to Thomas Buell:
"When the Tennessee campaign ended, Thomas had performed the
unsurpassed masterpiece of theater command and control of the Civil War. So
modern in concept, so sweeping in scope, it would become a model for strategic
maneuver in twentieth-century warfare."2
Today, 142 years after Virginia seceded from the Union on 17 July 1861 and
then Col. George H. Thomas of Southampton County did not follow his state, but
rather his oath, he is still a controversial figure among those who remember
him. He is largely overlooked in popular presentations of the Civil War, and
utterly ignored in our nations middle- and high-school history textbooks. He
might get a paragraph in a college textbook. This is the case in spite of his
having been the most successful general on either side. He never lost an
engagement where he really commanded. In short, he was the rock of a lot of
places besides Chickamauga, where on 20 Sept. 1863 he rallied 25,000 Union
soldiers to hold off 60,000 Confederates long enough to permit the Union army to
make an ordered retreat, or advance according to some commentators, to the real
objective of the battle - Chattanooga. At Murfreesboro (31 Dec. 1862) his
presence at the center was absolutely decisive in staving off Braggs
attack,3 and nobody but Thomas could have parried Hoods attack at
Peachtree Creek (20 Aug. 1864). This was the real battle of Atlanta, downgraded
by Sherman in his own interest4 to Hoods first sortie. In
addition, Thomas was more like a hammer, and a heavy one at that, at Mill
Springs, the first major Union victory of the war (19 Jan. 1862), at Tullahoma
(22-29 June 1863) where, under Thomas, the Spencer repeating rifle was first
used on a large scale, at the decisive battle of Chattanooga (23-25 Nov.
1864)5 where he managed the battle behind Grant's back and saved
Grant's career, and at Nashville (15-16 Dec. 1864) where he was both hammer and
anvil.6 To learn more about these battles go to my Battles and Reports page. He achieved
these successes by dint of decades of hard work and study. While other officers
out on the frontier gambled, drank, tried to grow potatoes, and messed with the
cash box, Thomas conducted botanical, zoological, and topographical studies and
composed a first dictionary of the language of the Yuma Indians. While sitting
on court martial boards he became an expert in military law. From the smallest
skirmish with Indians to the battle of Buena Vista he drew his conclusions about
the principles of engagement. During the Civil War he embraced the latest
technologies while applying timeless military principles train your men well
and take care of them, do your best to make your opponent attack you, by all
means know more than your opponent, and pierce the center only after at least
one of the flanks has been turned. He also gave a good example to his men by
never taking a single day of leave during the entire war, and by sharing their
dangers. He introduced battlefield procedures which today are part of standard
military doctrine. While still training cavalry troops in Carlisle, PA, before
the first battle of Bull Run, he wrote a memorandum to Winfield Scott outlining
his strategy for winning the war Cut the Confederacy in two by driving through
East Tennessee on Chattanooga.7 It took him 2 ˝ years along a
different route, but when nobody else could or would do it, he did it himself.
As it turned out, this was the strategy which broke the stalemate in Virginia.
Perhaps most significantly, wherever he commanded, even at the battle of
Nashville, the rate of casualties was relatively low - on both sides. His
object was not to annihilate an enemy, but rather to disorganize an opponent. To
learn more about his accomplishments, go to my Salient Facts page.
earned him little credit from some Union generals like Grant who feared Thomas
as a rival for top command, and toward the end of the war Grant, not one of
whose battles bears close inspection,8 began a campaign to diminish
Thomas reputation which he pursued as long as he lived. After he died, Grants
biographers continued in this vein and shaped the historiography of the Civil
War with the results described above. It is true that Thomas' uncommon ability
was recognized and appreciated by many people in high places in and outside of
Washington during the war, but nevertheless his promotions came slowly. One
reason for this was his lack of a state political machine to watch over his
fortunes. He'd left that behind when he opted for the Union. But let us be
charitable toward the politicians. Commissions to high rank were scarce, and the
horde aspiring thereto was huge. In their mostly undocumented back-room
discussions they may well have said, "Let the Virginian wait. He will do his
duty and get the job done anyway."
If you follow the currents of the
internecine political battles fought on both sides, Grants behavior was
predictable and even understandable. Every war tosses up desperate adventurers.
The concomitant rejection of Thomas by most Southerners, and by some Southern
students of the Civil War even today, is equally understandable, but the reasons
for it are perhaps more complex. The obvious assertion that Thomas betrayed his
country, i.e. the State of Virginia, falls short when we consider that other
prominent Virginians like Gen. Winfield Scott and Admiral David Farragut also
opted for the Union, without becoming the objects of the denigration or even
vilification to which Thomas was subjected. While Scott's stout unionism was a
comfort to Northerners, and Farragut's war contributions were stellar, someone
else in their position would have done much the same thing. What really rankled
the Southerners in Thomas' case was the fact that he was
Today much of the heated discussion of the past has been replaced with a
calmer assessment of Thomas, but at the very center of this assessment, Thomas
home area Southampton County there is still a strong ambivalence toward its
most prominent native son. This ambivalence can be explained by several factors,
perhaps the first of which was the ambivalence of Southampton County itself to
the whole question of secession. In fact, according to a local resident, in the
vote (among property owners of course) to ratify secession, Southampton County
split in half. The half of the county in which Thomas grew up was decidedly
against secession, so Thomas wasnt really acting against the sentiments of many
of his neighbors.
There were no typical plantations in this part of
Virginia because its widespread swamps precluded large-scale agriculture. For
example, the Thomas family holding at around 500 acres and 15 slaves was one of
the larger units in the county. Therefore the interest of many Southampton
County residents diverged from that of most members of Virginia's ruling
There is also reason to believe that he acted less
against the sentiments of his family than is commonly asserted:
the war Thomas demonstrably maintained amicable relations with his brother
Benjamin, and there is no proof that there had ever been a rupture. When some
lost-cause members of the new Tennessee legislature proposed to sell a portrait
of Thomas hanging in the state capitol building, Benjamin tried to buy
it.10 In 1869, before leaving from Nashville for his final duty
station in California, Thomas sent a former slave (whom he had acquired for his
wife when stationed in Texas before the war, left at Thomaston during the war,
and brought to Nashville at the end of the war), along with her family, to
Benjamins care in Vicksburg where he lived at the time.11
The stories about Judith and Fanny, the last surviving sisters, according to
which they kept Georges portrait turned to the wall, considered him to have
died when he abandoned Virginia, and so forth, are probably exaggerated. Dr.
W.D. Barham, Judiths physician, reported that the sisters were mortified by
such rumors, and that they felt more sorrowful than angered at their brothers
decision. According to the physician, the sisters also sent acorns from the
enormous oak tree (see photo above) in front of their house in order to be
planted around Thomas equestrian
statue at Thomas Circle in Washington, DC.12
The county as
a whole, or even the South, might have rejected the idea of secession if a
person named Nat Turner hadnt burned the question of slavery into the peoples
minds when he began his insurrection on 21 Aug. 1831, during which he and the
band of other disaffected slaves he had gathered up killed 55 whites men,
women, and children. Claiming to have received divine inspiration, he began his
campaign, the largest one of its kind in U.S. history, within just a few miles
of the Thomas family farm. Some slaves joined Turner, others fought against him.
Thomas mother led her family to safety in Courtland and was helped to do so by
some of her own slaves, according to local tradition. Thomas was 15 years old at
the time, and as he later reflected on his experience fleeing along Cypress
Bridge Road through Mill Swamp, he came to a different conclusion than did many
of his countrymen. This terrifying episode was implanted so forcefully into the
collective memories of the people of that area, that even today it is a standard
topic of discussion and memorialized in road signs (Blackhead Signpost Road,
Greenhead Road, etc.).13
Fear is a poison which can exercise
its force on a body politic for decades and even centuries after the original
cause of that fear has been overcome or even forgotten. Since most people tend
to overestimate their own freedom of choice and to discount the long-term
effects of such determining influences, they find themselves in quandary when
asked by a disinterested observer about what really motivates them to take
certain stances in political and social disputes.
With time, however,
some people slowly begin to question the accepted certainties of the past. For
example, recently a Southhampton County resident, touching on the insurrection
without any prompting from me, said, Nat Turner was a fanatic. But considering
that he was a slave, its hard to hold it against him. Nobody was more aware of
the enormity of what he had done than Turner himself. The trackless Great Dismal
Swamp beckoned a mere 30 miles away, but after the carnage he hid near home for
70 days, and then gave himself up to trial and gallows. Under the frustration of
a lifetime of not being taken seriously he had snapped and set in motion a
process which snuffed out the lives of 55 people who were also trapped in that
unfortunately contrived social system, along with the lives of the
insurrectionists and of other blacks simply found off their farms at the wrong
time. Cursed be the lot of the slave, and well as that of the master.
whatever reason, since the end of the Civl War, a debate about Thomas has been
carried out among the residents of Southampton County. He has had his local
champions, such as Colgate Darden, Jr., governor of Virginia 1942-46 (see
portrait above). Plaques have been erected and dedicated with public ceremony, a
road has been named after him (General Thomas Highway). Money has been collected
in order to refurbish Thomas gravesite in Troy, NY. Efforts were even made to
have his body brought back to Virginia for reburial. Occasionally a tourbus
finds its way to Thomaston. On the other hand, Thomas ceremonial sword, given
to him by Southampton County notables in recognition of his performances in
Florida and in the Mexican War, remains in a Richmond museum. Another of his
swords (some ordinary duty sword or the Mill Springs sword?) remains locked up
in a vault in Franklin, no portrait of Thomas hangs in a public
place,14 no center devoted to his study has been established, no
school has been named after him, and no statue of him stares out over the
Nottaway River from the park beside the courthouse.
In his Memoirs
Sherman predicted that large numbers of Southerners would someday be making
pilgrimages to Virginia to honor Thomas memory. That has not taken place,
at least not to the extent he perhaps envisioned, but it can be argued that
something more subtle has taken place. In a speech given 14 years after the war
Gen. Irvin McDowell said:
"Is it not, indeed, an immortal glory for Virginia to have
produced the noblest soldier of the Revolution and the noblest that fought for
the North in the Civil War, as well as the noblest that fought for the South?
I hope some day to see her erect a worthy monument to one of the greatest of
her sons. But, as she grows every year richer, more prosperous, more
fortunate, more loyal in the Union for which he helped to save her, she
herself, whether she wills it or not, will more and more become his proudest
Toward the end of the war Grant asked Thomas about the best route for one of
his armies to take through Virginia. Although the most direct way would have
been through Southampton County, Thomas recommended another. After the war
Thomas arranged that the army should deliver supplies to the county, and took no
credit for the act. The man who protected Southhampton Country from afar, said
this about the conduct of Union soldiers when in enemy territory:
"We must remember that this is a civil war, fought to
preserve the Union that is based on brotherly love and patriotic belief in the
one nation. It is bad enough for us to demand that love of a restored Union at
the point of the bayonet, but we can justify ourselves by claiming what we do
is from a sense of duty. The thing becomes horribly grotesque, however, when
from ugly feeling we visit on helpless old men, women, and children the
horrors of a barbarous war. We must be as considerate and kind as possible, or
we will find that in destroying the rebels we have destroyed the Union."16
From this exposition it should already be clear that Thomas
deserves more consideration than he gets from most Virginians and many
Southhampton County residents. But there are still other
In 1864, in a harbinger of what European governments had
in mind for America should a power vacuum result here, Napoleon III established
Archduke Maxmillian on a throne in Mexico City. According to Wilbur Thomas (no
relation), "it is but realistic to conclude that but for the Northern victory
other nations would have attempted to gain a foothold elsewhere in this
hemisphere." 17 And in the furtherance of such plans it would have
been only natural for them to encourage yet more fragmentation on the North
American continent. The chaos of, and the violence inherent in such a situation
is easy to imagine. Thomas may well have had this danger in mind as he fought to
save the Union, and as he struggled to fulfill what was perhaps his driving
personal ambition - to found the modern army.
You read correctly -
ambition, normal human pride. If we consider in this light every step he took,
every promotion he either accepted, rejected, or postponed, every subordinate he
rehabilitated or allowed to be sidelined, every slight he swallowed and every
personal sacrifice he made, including leaving Virginia, the outline of quite a
healthy ego emerges. The denial of this creates problems of analysis, and the
acceptance of it solves them. He could not fulfill his ambition while adhering
to the Confederacy, because it didn't have the requisite resources and
industrial infrastructure. He also could not reach this goal and allow his
emotions much external play. Some authors have quoted him as saying, the
occasion varying, "I have taken a great deal of pains to educate myself not to
feel." 18 If he actually said this, it was a lapse, because all he, or
anyone could or can do, is to learn to control the expression of one's feelings.
He paid a heavy price for burying his emotions while serving the public weal,
but he would have paid a different price had he offered his services to the
South. The archaic command structure of which Bragg ran afoul would have blocked
him at every turn, and he perhaps would have borne the frustration less well
than Bragg did. But where is it written that life is supposed to be
It is no contradiction to suggest that the model public servant
George Henry Thomas was extraordinarily personally ambitious. The Army of the
Cumberland was his work of art which he created, nutured, and protected as long
as he could against all encroachments, and this in the long-range interest of
both Southerners and Northerners, in fact of the entire nation and all races of
our nation. Toward the end Sherman
threw it against "breastworks twelve feet thick" at Kennesaw Mountain, and finally took
it away from him. And Thomas put up with that too because, except for two final
challenges Wilson's cavalry raid to Selma and the experiment of practical
reconstruction 19 his work was done. The Union was saved, and his
reforms and innovations were already institutionalized.
Ask yourself this
question: Where would we be today without this army? The answer to the question,
or at least the answer to the reverse of that question Where would we not
be? is obvious and should move us to focus more attention on the
creator of that army. The English have honored their great pioneer
Wellington, 20 and our society would have in Thomas a comparable
figure to hold up for study and emulation, if he were given his
due. 20 Since the political general Grant does not qualify for this role, we
are at the moment the poorer for it.
Those of us who would like to
remedy this situation should come to terms with reality. An entire country, an
entire educational bureaucracy, an entire academic establishment, are such large
and inert structures that they are impossible to modify from without. In order
to modify them from within, a start has to made somewhere, and the best,
easiest, and most significant place to start is Virginia and, in Virginia, the
county of his birth.
I hope I will be forgiven for making the following
exhortation to the people of Virginia and Southampton County, which I do with
respect and kindly feeling toward them: Do something positive to demonstrate to
the world that you have understood Thomas' singular contribution to our nation.
Leave him buried where he is, but track down descendants of the Thomas family.
Interview every single person in the county with roots going back to the
Southampton of that period in order to unearth hidden documentation and save
what can still be learned from oral tradition. Come to terms with his decision
to return south at the head of his men. Bring George Thomas' memory home.
Notes:1.Keyes, "Fifty Years'
Observation of Men and Events," 1884, pg. 166 .
Buell, "Warrior Generals," pg. 388: " When the Tennessee
campaign ended, Thomas had performed the unsurpassed masterpiece of theater
command and control of the Civil War. So modern in concept, so sweeping in
scope, it would become a model for strategic maneuver in twentieth-century
3. Gen. Braxton Bragg, the
best possible authority in this matter, confirms this opinion in his battle
report : "Numbering at least two to our one, he [Rosecrans] was enabled to bring
fresh troops at every point to resist our progress, and he did so with a skill
and judgment which has ever characterized his aide commander
[Thomas]. (O.R. ser. #
29, pg. 665 )
4. Anyone who
entertains the idea that Sherman was a friend to Thomas should consider the
following quote from a letter which Sherman wrote on 27 April
1864 (in a period of relative calm between
campaigns) to former Senator Thomas Ewing, his adoptive father
and father-in-law : " At Chattanooga Grant was with Thomas in
personhe held back Thomas' troops till Hooker got into positionwe were delayed
by Chattanooga Creek impassable that day without a Bridge to construct which
took time, 4 hours. If we were to dispose of such men as Thomas summarily who
would take his place? We are not masters as Napoleon was. He could make &
unmake on the Spot. We must take the tools provided us, and in the order
prescribed by Rank of which the Law judges. " (Thomas Ewing and
Family Papers)This mendacious passage from
the pen of a person who lost every battle or portion of a battle where he
commanded, who owed his rank to his brother U.S. Senator John Sherman, is an
obvious expression of seething resentment against a man whom he recognized as
his better. Note that it was the other way around at Chattanooga.
Thomas delayed carrying out Grant's flawed order until he knew
that Hooker had turned Bragg's left flank, and the head of Hooker's column
immediately got across on the
remains of the burned bridge .
Davis after the war: "Chattanooga was the key to the situation, and
its loss was terrible to the Confederacy. Our only comfort was, that the people
at Washington did not know what to do with it." ( Donn Piatt, "General George H. Thomas: A Critical
Biography," 1893, pg. 509.
6. According to Thomas Buell ("Warrior Generals", pg.
xxxii): "The Battle of Nashville was the paradigm of the Civil War, for it
pitted the army of the future against the army of the past."Thomas applied everything he had learned during the war, and Hood
demonstrated that he had learned little.
General D.H. Maury's estimation of Thomas at Nashville: "I have never heard
anybody who was in Hood's army justify the complaint that Thomas was slow....The
army, with which Thomas gained his great victory, was largely made up of forces
detached for the occasion from other armies, of new levies and of dismounted
cavalry, some of whom were remounted in presence of the enemy, and was therefore
ill-fitted to cope with the veteran army of Hood. So impatient was the Federal
Government of the delay of Thomas in attacking Hood, that on the 9th of December
he was ordered to be relieved from the command of the army. The order was,
fortunately for Halleck, suspended. Thomas would not attack till he was ready.
His victory was decisive....In calm review of these operations, it is but fair
to say that in the whole course of the war, there was no finer illustration of
generalship exhibited by any Federal commander than General Thomas' defense of
Nashville." (Southern Historical Society Papers, June
8. Grant's Vicksburg campaign is almost universally
praised, even though he suffered 90,000 casualites which he hid from the War
Department. Most of them died or became cripples for life before the actual
battles began, i.e. during the attempts to dig 3 canals through malarial swamps
which Grant admitted were make-work projects or, in his words, "a series of
experiments to consume time, and to divert the attention of the enemy, of my
troops and of the public generally" (Memoirs, pg.
232). They all failed because Grant hadn't the faintest notion of
hydrology. In Dec. 1862 he had abruptly broken off a perfectly feasible approach
to Vicksburg along the railroad east of the Mississippi because of a minor raid
to his rear, but mainly because McClernand seemed to be getting political
traction with the wierd idea of going around on the western bank. A look at a
modern road map of Louisiana shows even today a paucity of roads on the western
bank of the Mississippi. There is a reason for this. During his famous march to
the interior, Grant launched 4 utterly useless frontal assaults, 1 at Champion's
Hill, and 3 at Vicksburg itself. He was fortunate that the indecisive Joseph
Johnston was in some sort of command at Jackson.Finally,
Vicksburgwould have fallen by itself within weeks of the fall of
Chattanooga. The main positive value of Grant's Vicksburg campaign lay in the
fact that Bragg's forces at Murfreesboro and Tullahoma were weakened to
reinforce Pemberton. He could have accomplished the same purpose with something
less spectacular but much more salutary, say parking his command for the winter
at Grenada, Miss., but then he wouldn't have become president.
9. According to Boatner (pg. 495), there were 16 Northern-born
graduates of West Point who fought for the South.
All had married into Southern families. Among them were Bushrod Johnson (Ohio),
John Pemberton (Pennsylvania), and Josiah Gorgas (Pennsylvania). Gorgas became
the Confederacy's Chief of Ordnance, and his achievements in that role were
essential to the Confederate war effort.There were 162 graduates
of West Point who were born in seceding states and fought for the Union.
Winfield Scott, born in Virginia, did not go to West Point.From
the exchange, the South gained more generals, but the North gained many more
10. Francis McKinney, "Education in Violence -
The Life of George H. Thomas and the History of the Army of the Cumberland,"
1961, pg. 460. In the end, the legislators came to their senses and kept the
portrait. It remains in Nashville to this day.
Van Horne, "The Life of Major General George H. Thomas, 1882, pg.
12.W.D. Barham, Recollections of the
Thomas Family of Southampton County, Virginia Historical Magazine,
Richmond, Vol. XL, pg. 334 (1932) .
Southampton County Historical Society has produced two excellent video
documentaries about the Nat Turner insurrection, a 4 tape set for $75 plus $6
postage and a single tape for $35 plus $6 dollars postage. Contact Milton
Futrell at P. O. Box 407, Courtland, VA 23837.
14. A portrait of
Lee hangs at West Point.
15. Society of the Army of the
Cumberland,Yearbook of 1879, pp.
17. Piatt, pg. 502.
16. "General George H. Thomas, the Indomitable Warrior," 1963. pg.
309. Many observers shared this opinion. From many I cite this statement by gen.
Edward Alexander, Longstreet's chief of artillery: "Had our cause succeeded,
divergent interests must soon have further separated the States into groups, and
this continent would have been given over to divided nationalities, each weak
and unable to command foreign credit" ("Military Memoirs of a
18. Wilbur Thomas, pg. 604; Richard O'Connor, "Thomas, Rock of
Chickamauga," 1948, pg. 195, and others.19. McKinney, pg.
448: "Among the military commanders in the South, Thomas was pre-eminent in the
work of reconstruction."
always posted his main force behind a ridge out of sight of the enemy. He used
this tactic in Spain to defeat a whole series of French commanders, and then
again to defeat Napoleone Buonaparte himself who apparently had not discussed
Wellington with his marshals or even read their reports. As Wellington said in
surprise during the battle of Waterloo: "Damn the fellow, he is a mere pounder
after all." Beware of the pounders who propose to send (not lead) you forward to
Writings from and about Southampton
Bessie Thomas Shands, General George H. Thomas,
Southampton Historical Society Bulletin, No.4, 1980
Franklin & Southampton in the Civil War, 2002, ISBN 1561901504
Balfour, A sketch of the Life of General George H. Thomas, Southampton
Historical Society Bulletin, No. 5, March 1983
Daniel W. Crofts, Old
Southampton Politics and Society in a Virginia City, 1992, ISBN
Plaque at the grave of George H. Thomas.|
is located off I-81 just east of Winchester in northern Virginia. Thanks
are owed to the Civil War Society of Berryville for making this gesture to
bring Thomas home.