Northern Virginia Campaign Map
Second Bull Run / Second Manassas
American Civil War
July to September 1862


Lee knew that his Army of Northern Virginia was in a dangerous position between Pope and McClellan, especially if the two were to unite. On July 13, he sent Jackson, with forces eventually totaling 24,000 men, to watch Pope. After an initial sparring action at Cedar Mountain on August 9, Jackson and Pope stood watching each other for nearly a week. Lee, knowing that McClellan was leaving Harrison's Landing, had departed Richmond with the remainder of the Army of Northern Virginia and joined Jackson at Gordonsville. The combined Confederate forces outnumbered Pope's, and Lee resolved to outflank and cut off the Army of Virginia before the whole of McClellan's force could be brought to bear.

A succession of captured orders enabled both Lee and Pope to learn the intentions of the other. Pope ascertained Lee's plan to trap him against the Rappahannock and withdrew to the north bank astride the railroad. Lee, learning that two corps from the Army of the Potomac would join Pope within days, acted quickly and boldly. He sent Jackson off on a wide turning movement through Thoroughfare Gap in the Bull Run Mountains around the northern flank of Pope's army and subsequently followed the same route with the divisions commanded by General Longstreet.

Pope took note of Jackson's move, but first assumed that it was pointed toward the Shenandoah Valley. Then Jackson, covering nearly sixty miles in two days, came in behind Pope at Manassas on August 26, destroyed his supply base there, and slipped away unmolested. Pope marched and countermarched his forces for two days trying to find the elusive Confederates. At the same time the Union commander failed to take Lee's other forces into account. As a result he walked into Lee's trap on the site of the old battlefield of Manassas, or Bull Run. Pope attacked Jackson, posted behind an abandoned railroad embankment, but again the attack consisted of a series of piecemeal frontal assaults which were repulsed with heavy casualties. By then Porter's V Corps from the Army of the Potomac had reached the field and was ordered to attack Jackson's right (south) flank. By this time also, Longstreet's column had burst through Thoroughfare Gap, and deploying on Jackson's right, it blocked Porter's move.

Next day, August 30, Pope renewed his attacks against Jackson, whom he thought to be retreating. Seizing the opportunity to catch the Federal columns in an exposed position, Lee sent Longstreet slashing along the Warrenton turnpike to catch Pope's flank in the air. The Federal army soon retired from the field and Pope led it back to Washington, fighting an enveloping Confederate force at Chantilly on the way.


Lee, by great daring and rapid movement, and by virtue of having the Confederate forces unified under his command, had successfully defeated one formidable Union army in the presence of another even larger one. Halleck, as General in Chief, had not taken the field to co-ordinate Pope and McClellan, and Pope lost the campaign despite the advantage of interior lines

Manassas 2
Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas
Expertly researched and well written. This was one of the most interesting campaigns in the eastern theater. High drama prevailed from the very start. Jackson's performance is well documented

Robert E Lee
Lee's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865
The cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia its leadership, the military life of its officers and men as revealed in their diaries and letters, the development of its tactics as the war evolved, and the influence of government policies on its operational abilities.
The United States Historical War Map, c.1862
The United States Historical War Map, c.1862
48 in. x 47.125 in.
Buy at

Battles of the Confederate
Northern Virginia Campaign

Cedar Mountain
Rappahannock Station
Bristoe Station
Chapman's Mill
Second Bull Run
Second Manassas

Ox Hill

Second Manassas Second Bull Run Campaign Map click for full size mapSecond Manassas Map

August 29, 1862
  August 30, 1862

Chronology Second Manassas
Second Bull Run

29 August 1862
Second Bull Run battle map


Sigel's Corps with Reynold's Division pressed westward and became engaged in a series of disjointed attacks against Jackson's position along the railroad


Sigel called off attacks.


Longstreet's Corps began arriving south of Jackson's line and completed its deployment about 1100. Hood's Division was on both sides of the turnpike near Pageland Lane. Wilcox's Division was echeloned to his left rear, while Kemper's Division was echeloned to his right rear. D. R. Jones' Division extended from Kemper's farther south across the Manassas Gap Railroad and Robertson's Cavalry screened toward Manassas. Jones engaged elements of Morell's Division; Porter's Corps was engaged in desultory fighting all afternoon.


Heintzelman's Corps (Kearny's and Hooker's Divisions) and Reno's Corps (Reno's and Stevens' Divisions) arrived near the Stone House.


The Federal attack was renewed. Schurz's Division seized part of Jackson's railroad position and held it until relieved at 1400 by Heintzelman's Corps.


Period of regrouping and rest with some skirmishing.


Grover's Brigade, Hooker's Division made a successful bayonet attack against the center of Jackson's line; lost 500 men in 20 minutes, was not supported and was forced back.


Kearny attacked on Jackson's extreme left (north) and began to roll up that part of the line held by A. P. Hill's Division. Two brigades of Confederate reinforcements were rushed from an unthreatened portion of their line and repulsed Kearny's men.


Wilcox's Division was shifted by Longstreet to support D. R. Jones toward Manassas; it soon returned when no threat developed. Fitz-John Porter's presence to the south had fixed Longstreet's right wing all afternoon. The Confederate did not want to commit himself until he had determined Porter's intentions.


Hatch's (formerly King's) Division arrived at the Stone House and was ordered to attack westward along the Pike.


Hatch's Division collided with Hood's Division, which was probing eastward along the Warrenton Pike. Fighting endured around Groveton until about 1915. Reynolds' Division south of the Pike had been prevented from supporting effectively by Longstreet's artillery.

c. 1830

Pope ordered Porter to bring his corps to Groveton. Pope felt Jackson was retreating and disregarded Porter's reports of Longstreet's presence south of the Pike. Longstreet was freed for the next day.

30 August 1862
Second Manassas Battle detail map


Federals began to move into attack positions; Reynolds shifted to Chinn's Ridge.


Butterfield's and Hatch's Divisions with Sykes' in support commenced the main attack. They pushed to the railroad held by Jackson's men but were enfiladed by Longstreet's artillery on their left (south). Meanwhile Heintzelman's units pressed farther north.


Reynolds was pulled from his position to support Porter. Only Warren's Brigade (Sykes' Division) and Anderson's Brigade (Reynolds' Division) remained south of the Pike.


Longstreet attacked, pivoting on Jackson's position. Hood's Division advanced along an axis formed by the Pike while Longstreet's other units advanced in an arc north-northeast.


Warren's position was overrun. Pope placed more troops on Chinn's Ridge: Ricketts', along with Schurz's and parts of Schenck's Division were rushed in; Sykes' Division went to Henry Hill farther east and was joined later by Reynolds with two of his brigades. Reno and Heintzelman delayed north of the Pike against Jackson, who conformed to Longstreet's advance.


Chinn's Ridge was taken. Fighting shifted to Henry Hill. Sykes and Reynolds held until relieved by Stevens' Division of Reno's Corps, which halted the last Confederate attack.


All quiet.


Schurz's Division evacuated a bridgehead west of Stone Bridge.

31 August 1862


Turnpike Bridge was blown up; Federals drew into Centreville positions. (The stone bridge had been destroyed 9 March 1862 by Confederates. The bridge destroyed 31 August was a temporary wooden span.)

Kindle Available
Tempest at Ox Hill

Tempest at Ox Hill
The Battle of Chantilly

At Chantilly, Virginia, on September 1, 1862, a small Union rearguard faced down some of Lee's best generals. The retreating main Union army, and Washington, were saved, but at a frightening human cost, including the deaths of two Union generals

Kindle Available
Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain
Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain

At Cedar Mountain on August 9,1862, Stonewall Jackson exercised independent command of a campaign for the last time

Second Manassas
Second Manassas 1862
Robert E Lee's greatest victory

Robert E Lee came as close as he ever would to exterminating his Northern enemies. In so doing, Lee established himself as the South's pre-eminent military commander and the Army of Northern Virginia as it's most powerful weapon
Campaigns of the Civil War
Virginia Battle Map 1862
Civil War Exhibits
Timeline of the War
State Battle Maps
Civil War Navy Ships
Civil War Summary
Civil War Picture Album
Women of the Civil War
Civil War Submarines
Civil War Replica Musket
Civil War Musket
Wood & Steel Frontier Rifle Designed After The Original Rifle

Civil War Revolver Pistol
Civil War Model 1851 Naval Pistol

Civil War History Book Titles
Rocks Second Mannassas
Rocks and War: Geology and the Civil War Campaign of Second Manassas
The first study of the Battle of Second Manassas to show the importance of the landscape through which the generals maneuvered. Knowledge of landforms was vital to officers as they planned strategy and movements
Counter Thrust
From the Peninsula to the Antietam

A window into the Union's internal conflict at building a military leadership team. Lincoln's administration in disarray, with relations between the president and field commander McClellan strained to the breaking point. Shows how the fortunes of war shifted abruptly in the Union's favor, climaxing at Antietam.
Echoes of Thunder
Echoes of Thunder
A Guide to the Seven Days Battles

This is a valuable and welcome addition to this series of battlefield guides. This book will provide you with a guide on the field or it will supplement reading about the American Civil War battle of The Seven Days.
Kindle Available

Rebels At The Gate
The dramatic story of the first Union victories of the Civil War and the events that caused Virginians to divide their state. In a defiant act to sustain President Lincoln's war effort, Virginia Unionists created their own state government in 1861-destined to become the new state of West Virginia. Their actions blocked what should have been Confederate control of the territory and closed one of their key gateways to the Union states
Jackson Legend
Stonewall Jackson
The Man, the Soldier, the Legend

Jackson traces his life from his humble beginnings, through his military career, to his untimely death in 1863, discussing his military campaigns and strategies, religious beliefs, personal eccentricities
Stonewall Jackson at Port Rebublic
Conquering the Valley: Stonewall Jackson at Port Republic
Using accurate background information as well as anecdotal material, eyewitness accounts, and new primary sources, a historic narrative outlines the events surrounding the Civil War battles at Port Republic and Cross Keys
Four Years With General Lee
Walter Taylor was staff officer to General Robert E. Lee. His book first appeared in 1877. For many years a standard authority on Confederate history, it is the source for dozens of incidents that have now become a part of every biography of Lee.
Kindle Available
lee maxims

The Maxims Of Robert E. Lee For Young Gentlemen: Advice, Admonitions, and Anecdotes on Christian Duty and Wisdom from the Life of General Lee
All his life, Robert E. Lee relied upon his faith for strength and guidance not only in troubled times, but also as the foundation upon which he based all of his dealings with others.

Civil War Video Games

United States Military Academy
US Army
Library of Congress
National Park Service